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Notable among these were the Tyrrell and Toleman teams. During the season of Formula One, the sport was gripped in a governance crisis. The FIA President Max Mosley proposed numerous cost cutting measures for the following season, including an optional budget cap for the teams;  teams electing to take the budget cap would be granted greater technical freedom, adjustable front and rear wings and an engine not subject to a rev limiter.
However, talks broke down and FOTA teams announced, with the exception of Williams and Force India ,   that 'they had no choice' but to form a breakaway championship series. On 24 June, an agreement was reached between Formula One's governing body and the teams to prevent a breakaway series.
It was agreed teams must cut spending to the level of the early s within two years; exact figures were not specified,  and Max Mosley agreed he would not stand for re-election to the FIA presidency in October. These events often took place on circuits that were not always suitable for the World Championship, and featured local cars and drivers as well as those competing in the championship. In the early years of Formula One, before the world championship was established, there were around twenty races held from late Spring to early Autumn in Europe, although not all of these were considered significant.
Most competitive cars came from Italy, particularly Alfa Romeo. After the start of the world championship, these non-championship races continued. In the s and s, there were many Formula One races which did not count for the World Championship; in a total of twenty-two Formula One races were held, of which only six counted towards the World Championship. Some races, particularly in the UK, including the Race of Champions , Oulton Park International Gold Cup and the International Trophy , were attended by the majority of the world championship contenders.
Other smaller events were regularly held in locations not part of the championship, such as the Syracuse and Danish Grands Prix, although these only attracted a small amount of the championship teams and relied on private entries and lower Formula cars to make up the grid. South Africa's flourishing domestic Formula One championship ran from through to The frontrunning cars in the series were recently retired from the world championship although there was also a healthy selection of locally built or modified machines. Frontrunning drivers from the series usually contested their local World Championship Grand Prix, as well as occasional European events, although they had little success at that level.
As in South Africa a decade before, second hand cars from manufacturers like Lotus and Fittipaldi Automotive were the order of the day, although some, such as the March , were built specifically for the series. A Formula One Grand Prix event spans a weekend. It begins with two free practice sessions on Friday except in Monaco, where Friday practices are moved to Thursday , and one free practice on Saturday. Additional drivers commonly known as third drivers are allowed to run on Fridays, but only two cars may be used per team, requiring a race driver to give up his seat.
A qualifying session is held after the last free practice session. This session determines the starting order for the race on Sunday. The new rule for F1 tyre in is that the regulations would allow Pirelli to select three different tyres for each race, and each team could choose the tyre from those three depending on the strategies. This concept would continue in , but with Pirelli's thicker and wider tyres that tested extensively last year.
Tyre selections are announced over a month before each event, with rules stating Pirelli must announce compounds nine weeks before a European round and 15 weeks before a long-haul event. Drivers ordinarily select 10 of the 13 sets available for a race weekend, though Pirelli's new tyres means the Italian company will force each driver to stick to the same allocations for the first five races as it learns about the new tyre.
That means for the opening five races, drivers will have seven of the softest compound, four of the middle compound and two of the hardest compound available. Pirelli has backup compounds for introduction later in the season, if its initial batch proves to be too conservative in terms of performance or leads to greater levels of degradation than expected. For much of the sport's history, qualifying sessions differed little from practice sessions; drivers would have one or more sessions in which to set their fastest time, with the grid order determined by each driver's best single lap, with the fastest on pole position.
Grids were generally limited to 26 cars — if the race had more entries, qualification would also decide which drivers would start the race. During the early s, the number of entries was so high that the worst-performing teams had to enter a pre-qualifying session, with the fastest cars allowed through to the main qualifying session. The qualifying format began to change in the early s, with the FIA experimenting with limiting the number of laps, determining the aggregate time over two sessions, and allowing each driver only one qualifying lap.
The current qualifying system was adopted in the season. Known as "knock-out" qualifying, it is split into three periods, known as Q1, Q2, and Q3. In each period, drivers run qualifying laps to attempt to advance to the next period, with the slowest drivers being "knocked out" of qualification but not necessarily the race at the end of the period and their grid positions set within the rearmost five based on their best lap times. Drivers are allowed as many laps as they wish within each period. After each period, all times are reset, and only a driver's fastest lap in that period barring infractions counts.
Any timed lap started before the end of that period may be completed, and will count toward that driver's placement. The number of cars eliminated in each period is dependent on the total number of cars entered into the championship. Otherwise, all drivers proceed to the race albeit in the worst starting positions. This rule does not affect drivers in Q2 or Q3. In Q2, the 15 remaining drivers have 15 minutes to set one of the ten fastest times and proceed to the next period.
Finally, Q3 lasts 12 minutes and sees the remaining ten drivers decide the first ten grid positions. At the beginning of the Formula 1 season, the FIA introduced a new qualifying format, whereby drivers were knocked out every 90 seconds after a certain amount of time had passed in each session.
The aim was to mix up grid positions for the race, but due to unpopularity the FIA reverted to the above qualifying format for the Chinese GP, after running the format for only two races. Each car taking part in Q3 receives an 'extra' set of the softest available tyre. This set has to be handed in after qualifying, drivers knocked out in Q1 or Q2 can use this set for the race. The first ten drivers, i. In which case all of the rules about the tyres won't be followed. Any penalties that affect grid position are applied at the end of qualifying. Grid penalties can be applied for driving infractions in the previous or current Grand Prix, or for changing a gearbox or engine component.
If a car fails scrutineering, the driver will be excluded from qualifying, but will be allowed to start the race from the back of the grid at the race steward's discretion. The race begins with a warm-up lap, after which the cars assemble on the starting grid in the order they qualified.
This lap is often referred to as the formation lap, as the cars lap in formation with no overtaking although a driver who makes a mistake may regain lost ground provided he has not fallen to the back of the field. The warm-up lap allows drivers to check the condition of the track and their car, gives the tyres a chance to warm up to increase traction, and also gives the pit crews time to clear themselves and their equipment from the grid.
Once all the cars have formed on the grid, a light system above the track indicates the start of the race: The start procedure may be abandoned if a driver stalls on the grid, signalled by raising his arm. If this happens, the procedure restarts: The race may also be restarted in the event of a serious accident or dangerous conditions, with the original start voided. The race may be started from behind the Safety Car if officials feel a racing start would be excessively dangerous, such as extremely heavy rainfall.
As of the season, there will always be a standing restart. If due to heavy rainfall a start behind the safety car is necessary, then after the track has dried sufficiently, drivers will form up for a standing start. There is no formation lap when races start behind the Safety Car. Under normal circumstances, the winner of the race is the first driver to cross the finish line having completed a set number of laps.
Race officials may end the race early putting out a red flag due to unsafe conditions such as extreme rainfall, and it must finish within two hours, although races are only likely to last this long in the case of extreme weather or if the safety car is deployed during the race.
However, street races like Monaco have shorter distances, to keep under the two-hour limit. If a leader comes across a back marker slower car who has completed fewer laps, the back marker is shown a blue flag  telling him he is obliged to allow the leader to overtake him. The slower car is said to be "lapped" and, once the leader finishes the race, is classified as finishing the race "one lap down".
A driver can be lapped numerous times, by any car in front of him. A driver who fails to finish a race, through mechanical problems, accident, or any other reason is said to have retired from the race and is "Not Classified" in the results. Throughout the race, drivers may make pit stops to change tyres and repair damage from to inclusive, they could also refuel. Different teams and drivers employ different pit stop strategies in order to maximise their car's potential.
Three dry tyre compounds, with different durability and adhesion characteristics, are available to drivers. Over the course of a race, drivers must use two of the three available compounds. The different compounds have different levels of performance, and choosing when to use which compound is a key tactical decision to make. Different tyres have different colours on their sidewalls ; this allows spectators to understand the strategies. Under wet conditions, drivers may switch to one of two specialised wet weather tyres with additional grooves one "intermediate", for mild wet conditions, such as after recent rain, one "full wet", for racing in or immediately after rain.
A driver must make at least one stop to use two tyre compounds; up to three stops are typically made, although further stops may be necessary to fix damage or if weather conditions change. If rain tyres are used, drivers are no longer obliged to use both types of dry tyres. The format of the race has changed little through Formula One's history. The main changes have revolved around what is allowed at pit stops. In the early days of Grand Prix racing, a driver would be allowed to continue a race in his teammate's car should his develop a problem—in the modern era, cars are so carefully fitted to drivers that this has become impossible.
In recent years, the emphasis has been on changing refuelling and tyre change regulations.
From the season, refuelling—which was reintroduced in —has not been allowed, to encourage less tactical racing following safety concerns. The rule requiring both compounds of tyre to be used during the race was introduced in , again to encourage racing on the track. The safety car is another relatively recent innovation that reduced the need to deploy the red flag, allowing races to be completed on time for a growing international live television audience.
Various systems for awarding championship points have been used since The current system, in place since , awards the top ten cars points in the Drivers' and Constructors' Championships, with the winner receiving 25 points. If both cars of a team finish in the points, they both receive Constructors' Championship points. All points won at each race are added up, and the driver and constructor with the most points at the end of the season are crowned World Champions.
Regardless of whether a driver stays with the same team throughout the season, or switches teams, all points earned by him count for the Drivers' Championship. A driver must be classified to receive points. Therefore, it is possible for a driver to receive points even if they retired before the end of the race. This has happened on only five occasions in the history of the championship, and it had a notable influence on the final standing of the season.
The last occurrence was at the Malaysian Grand Prix when the race was called off after 31 laps due to torrential rain. Since ,  Formula One teams have been required to build the chassis in which they compete, and consequently the terms "team" and "constructor" became more or less interchangeable. This requirement distinguishes the sport from series such as the IndyCar Series which allows teams to purchase chassis, and " spec series " such as GP2 , which require all cars be kept to an identical specification. It also effectively prohibits privateers , which were common even in Formula One well into the s.
The sport's debut season, , saw eighteen teams compete, but due to high costs many dropped out quickly. In fact, such was the scarcity of competitive cars for much of the first decade of Formula One that Formula Two cars were admitted to fill the grids. Ferrari is the oldest Formula One team, the only still-active team which competed in Early manufacturer involvement came in the form of a "factory team" or " works team " that is, one owned and staffed by a major car company , such as those of Alfa Romeo, Ferrari, or Renault.
After having virtually disappeared by the early s, factory teams made a comeback in the s and s and formed up to half the grid with Ferrari, Jaguar, BMW, Renault, Toyota, and Honda either setting up their own teams or buying out existing ones. Factory teams make up the top competitive teams; in wholly owned factory teams took four of the top five positions in the Constructors' Championship, and McLaren the other. Ferrari holds the record for having won the most Constructors' Championships sixteen.
However, by the end of the s factory teams were once again on the decline with only Ferrari, Mercedes-Benz and Renault lodging entries to the championship. Companies such as Climax , Repco , Cosworth , Hart , Judd and Supertec , which had no direct team affiliation, often sold engines to teams that could not afford to manufacture them. In the early years, independently owned Formula One teams sometimes also built their engines, though this became less common with the increased involvement of major car manufacturers such as BMW, Ferrari, Honda, Mercedes-Benz, Renault, and Toyota, whose large budgets rendered privately built engines less competitive.
Cosworth was the last independent engine supplier. Beginning in , the manufacturers' deep pockets and engineering ability took over, eliminating the last of the independent engine manufacturers. In the season, for the first time since the rule, two teams used chassis built by other teams. Super Aguri started the season using a modified Honda Racing RA chassis used by Honda the previous year , while Scuderia Toro Rosso used the same chassis used by the parent Red Bull Racing team, which was formally designed by a separate subsidiary. The usage of these loopholes was ended for with the publication of new technical regulations, which require each constructor to own the intellectual property rights to their chassis,  which prevents a team using a chassis owned by another Formula One constructor.
As a consequence, constructors desiring to enter Formula One often prefer to buy an existing team: BAR 's purchase of Tyrrell and Midland 's purchase of Jordan allowed both of these teams to sidestep the large deposit and secure the benefits the team already had, such as TV revenue. Every team in Formula One must run two cars in every session in a Grand Prix weekend, and every team may use up to four drivers in a season. Each driver chooses an unassigned number from 2 to 99 excluding 17  upon entering Formula One, and keeps that number during his time in the series.
The number one is reserved for the reigning Drivers' Champion, who retains his previous number and may choose to but doesn't have to use it instead of the number one. The teams would hold those numbers from season to season with the exception of the team with the world Drivers' Champion, which would swap its numbers with the one and two of the previous champion's team. New entrants were allocated spare numbers, with the exception of the number 13 which had been unused since A total of 33 separate drivers have won the World Drivers' Championship, with Michael Schumacher holding the record for most championships with seven, as well as holding the race wins record.
Juan Manuel Fangio and Lewis Hamilton have won the next most — five championships each. Jochen Rindt is the only posthumous World Champion, after his points total was not surpassed despite his fatal accident at the Italian Grand Prix , with 4 races still remaining in the season. Drivers from the United Kingdom have been the most successful in the sport, with 18 championships among 10 drivers, and wins among 19 drivers.
Most F1 drivers start in kart racing competitions, and then come up through traditional European single seater series like Formula Ford and Formula Renault to Formula 3 , and finally the GP2 Series. GP2 started in , replacing Formula , which itself had replaced Formula Two as the last major stepping-stone into F1. American open-wheel car racing has also contributed to the Formula One grid with mixed results.
Other drivers have taken different paths to F1; Damon Hill raced motorbikes, and Michael Schumacher raced in sports cars , albeit after climbing through the junior single-seater ranks. To race, however, the driver must hold an FIA Super Licence —ensuring that the driver has the requisite skills, and will not therefore be a danger to others. Some drivers have not had the licence when first signed to an F1 team: Most F1 drivers retire in their mid to late 30s.
Some drivers have moved from F1 to racing in disciplines with fewer races during the season. Others, such as Damon Hill and Jackie Stewart , take active roles in running motorsport in their own countries. Carlos Reutemann became a politician and served as governor of his native state in Argentina. The number of Grands Prix held in a season has varied over the years. The inaugural world championship season comprised only seven races, while the season contained twenty-one races. Although throughout the first decades of the world championship there were no more than eleven Grands Prix a season, a large number of non-championship Formula One events also took place.
More Grands Prix began to be held in the s, and recent seasons have seen an average of 19 races. In the calendar peaked at twenty-one events, the highest number of world championship races in one season.
Six of the original seven races took place in Europe; the only non-European race that counted towards the World Championship in was the Indianapolis , which was held to different regulations and later replaced by the United States Grand Prix. The F1 championship gradually expanded to other non-European countries. Asia Japan in and Oceania Australia in followed, and the first race in the Middle East was held in The nineteen races of the season were spread over every populated continent except for Africa, with ten Grands Prix held outside Europe.
Some of the Grands Prix, such as the oldest recognised event the French Grand Prix , pre-date the formation of the World Championship and were incorporated into the championship as Formula One races in The Monaco Grand Prix , first held in and run continuously since , is widely considered to be one of the most important and prestigious automobile races in the world. Traditionally each nation has hosted a single Grand Prix, which carries the name of the country. If a single country hosts multiple Grands Prix in a year they receive different names. In European countries, the second event has often been titled the European Grand Prix , or named after a neighbouring state without a race.
The United States has held six separate Grands Prix, including the Indianapolis , with the additional events named after the host city. Grands Prix are not always held at the same circuit each year, and may switch locations due to the suitability of the track or the financial status of the race organisers.
All Grands Prix have traditionally been run during the day, until the inaugural Singapore Grand Prix hosted the first Formula One night race,  which was followed in by the day—night Abu Dhabi Grand Prix and then the Bahrain Grand Prix which converted to a night race in Along with holding races at night, other Grands Prix in Asia have had their start times adjusted to benefit the European television audience.
A typical circuit usually features a stretch of straight road on which the starting grid is situated. The pit lane , where the drivers stop for tyres, aerodynamic adjustments and minor repairs such as changing the car's nose due to front wing damage during the race, retirements from the race, and where the teams work on the cars before the race, is normally located next to the starting grid. The layout of the rest of the circuit varies widely, although in most cases the circuit runs in a clockwise direction. Those few circuits that run anticlockwise and therefore have predominantly left-handed corners can cause drivers neck problems due to the enormous lateral forces generated by F1 cars pulling their heads in the opposite direction to normal.
Most of the circuits currently in use are specially constructed for competition. The current street circuits are Monaco , Melbourne , Singapore , Sochi and Baku although races in other urban locations come and go Las Vegas and Detroit , for example and proposals for such races are often discussed—most recently New Jersey. Several circuits have been completely laid out on public roads in the past, such as Valencia in Spain, though Monaco is the only one that remains. The glamour and history of the Monaco race are the primary reasons why the circuit is still in use, even though it does not meet the strict safety requirements imposed on other tracks.
Three-time World champion Nelson Piquet famously described racing in Monaco as "like riding a bicycle around your living room". Circuit design to protect the safety of drivers is becoming increasingly sophisticated, as exemplified by the new Bahrain International Circuit , added in and designed—like most of F1's new circuits—by Hermann Tilke. Several of the new circuits in F1, especially those designed by Tilke, have been criticised as lacking the "flow" of such classics as Spa-Francorchamps and Imola.
His redesign of the Hockenheim circuit in Germany for example, while providing more capacity for grandstands and eliminating extremely long and dangerous straights, has been frowned upon by many who argue that part of the character of the Hockenheim circuits was the long and blinding straights into dark forest sections. These newer circuits, however, are generally agreed to meet the safety standards of modern Formula One better than the older ones.
A single race requires hotel rooms to accommodate at least 5, visitors. Modern Formula One cars are mid-engined , hybrid, open cockpit, open wheel single-seaters. The chassis is made largely of carbon-fibre composites , rendering it light but extremely stiff and strong. The race teams take advantage of this by placing this ballast at the extreme bottom of the chassis, thereby locating the centre of gravity as low as possible in order to improve handling and weight transfer. The cornering speed of Formula One cars is largely determined by the aerodynamic downforce that they generate, which pushes the car down onto the track.
This is provided by "wings" mounted at the front and rear of the vehicle, and by ground effect created by low air pressure under the flat bottom of the car. The aerodynamic design of the cars is very heavily constrained to limit performance and the current generation of cars sport a large number of small winglets, "barge boards", and turning vanes designed to closely control the flow of the air over, under, and around the car.
The other major factor controlling the cornering speed of the cars is the design of the tyres. From to , the tyres in Formula One were not " slicks " tyres with no tread pattern as in most other circuit racing series. Instead, each tyre had four large circumferential grooves on its surface designed to limit the cornering speed of the cars.
Suspension is double wishbone or multilink front and rear, with pushrod operated springs and dampers on the chassis — one exception being that of the specification Red Bull Racing car RB5 which used pullrod suspension at the rear, the first car to do so since the Minardi PS01 in Ferrari used a pullrod suspension at both the front and rear in their car. Carbon-carbon disc brakes are used for reduced weight and increased frictional performance. These provide a very high level of braking performance and are usually the element which provokes the greatest reaction from drivers new to the formula.
Formula One cars must have four uncovered wheels, all made of the same metallic material, which must be one of two magnesium alloys specified by the FIA.
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Starting with the Formula 1 season, the engines have changed from a 2. In addition they include a lot of energy recovery technology. Engines run on unleaded fuel closely resembling publicly available petrol. A wide variety of technologies—including active suspension  and ground effect aerodynamics  —are banned under the current regulations. Downforce of 2. The downforce means that the cars can achieve a lateral force with a magnitude of up to 3.
Such high lateral forces are enough to make breathing difficult and the drivers need supreme concentration and fitness to maintain their focus for the one to two hours that it takes to complete the race. A high-performance road car like the Enzo Ferrari only achieves around 1g.
As of [update] , each team may have no more than two cars available for use at any time. If more engines are used, he drops ten places on the starting grid of the event at which an additional engine is used. The only exception is where the engine is provided by a manufacturer or supplier taking part in its first championship season, in which case up to five may be used by a driver.
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As of [update] , each driver is limited to 3 power units per season, before incurring grid penalties. This was broken down as follows: Costs vary greatly from team to team. There have been controversies with the way profits are shared amongst the teams. The smaller teams have complained that the profits are unevenly shared, favouring established top teams.
In September , Force India and Sauber officially lodged a complaint with the European Union against Formula One questioning the governance and stating that the system of dividing revenues and determining the rules is unfair and unlawful. The cost of building a brand new permanent circuit can be up to hundreds of millions of dollars, while the cost of converting a public road, such as Albert Park , into a temporary circuit is much less.
Permanent circuits, however, can generate revenue all year round from leasing the track for private races and other races, such as MotoGP. A number of Formula One drivers earn the highest salary of any drivers in auto racing. The expense of Formula One has seen the FIA and the Formula One Commission attempt to create new regulations to lower the costs for a team to compete in the sport.
In the interest of making the sport truer to its role as a World Championship, Bernie Ecclestone had initiated and organised a number of Grands Prix in new countries. Proposals to hold future races are regularly made by both new locations and countries and circuits that have previously hosted a Formula One Grand Prix. Following their purchase of the commercial rights to the sport in , Liberty Media announced their vision for the future of Formula One at the Bahrain Grand Prix.
The proposal identified five key areas, including streamlining the governance of the sport, emphasising cost-effectiveness, maintaining the sport's relevance to road cars and encouraging new manufacturers to enter the championship whilst enabling them to be competitive. Formula One can be seen live or tape delayed in almost every country and territory around the world and attracts one of the largest global television audiences.
During the early s, Formula One Group created a number of trademarks, an official logo, and an official website for the sport in an attempt to give it a corporate identity. Ecclestone experimented with a digital television package known colloquially as Bernievision which was launched at the German Grand Prix in co-operation with German digital television service "DF1", 30 years after the first GP colour TV broadcast, the German Grand Prix.
This service offered the viewer several simultaneous feeds such as super signal, on board, top of field, backfield, highlights, pit lane, timing which were produced with cameras, technical equipment and staff different from those used for the conventional coverage. It was introduced in many countries over the years, but was shut down after the season for financial reasons. The only station that originally differed from this was "Premiere"—a German channel which offers all sessions live and interactive, with features such as the onboard channel.
This service was more widely available around Europe until the end of , when the cost of a whole different feed for the digital interactive services was thought too much. Prices were too high for viewers, considering they could watch both the qualifying and the races themselves free on ITV. However, upon the commencement of its coverage for the season, the BBC reintroduced complementary features such as the "red button" in-car camera angles, multiple soundtracks broadcast commentary, CBBC commentary for children, or ambient sound only and a rolling highlights package.
Different combinations of these features are available across the various digital platforms Freeview , Freesat , Sky , Virgin Media cable and the BBC F1 web site prior to, during, and after the race weekend. Not all services are available across all the various platforms due to technical constraints. The BBC also broadcasts a post-race programme called "F1 Forum" on the digital terrestrial platforms' "red button" interactive services. An announcement was made on 12 January , on the official Formula 1 website Formula1. Sky Sports F1 covered all races live without commercial interruption as well as live practice and qualifying sessions, along with F1 programming, including interviews, archive action and magazine shows.
BBC ended their joint television contract after the season, transferring their rights to Channel 4 until the end of the season, with their coverage being presented by former T4 presenter Steve Jones.
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While Sky Sports and Channel 4 are the two major broadcasters of Formula 1, other countries show formula one races on different TV channels as well even though many of them use commentary by the presenters from either Sky Sports or Channel 4 for example, Star Sports in India uses commentary by the Channel 4 presenters.
Some countries, however, have commentators of their own. The official Formula One website Formula1.
An official application has been available for iOS in the Apple App Store since ,  and for Android on Google Play since ,  that shows users a real-time feed of driver positions,  timing and commentary. Formula One Management's in-house production team produces race edits synchronised to music.
Currently the terms 'Formula One race' and 'World Championship race' are effectively synonymous; since , every Formula One race has counted towards the World Championship, and every World Championship race has been to Formula One regulations. But the two terms are not interchangeable. The distinction is most relevant when considering career summaries and "all-time lists". For example, in the List of Formula One drivers , Clemente Biondetti is shown with a single race against his name.
Biondetti actually competed in four Formula One races in ,  but only one of these counted for the World Championship. Similarly, several Indianapolis winners technically won their first World Championship race, though most record books choose to ignore this and instead only record regular World Championship participants. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Current season. Related articles. Drivers GP winners Polesitters Fastest laps. Champions Numbers. Constructors GP winners Champions. Seasons Grands Prix Circuits.
National colours Sponsorship liveries. Racing flags Red-flagged races. Female drivers TV broadcasters. Fatalities Video games. Drivers Constructors Engines Tyres Races. Main article: History of Formula One. South African Formula One Championship.
British Formula One Championship. Main articles: Formula One racing , Racing flags , and Formula One regulations. List of Formula One World Championship points scoring systems. See also: List of Formula One Grands Prix. List of Formula One circuits. List of Formula One broadcasters. The examples and perspective in this article may not represent a worldwide view of the subject. You may improve this article , discuss the issue on the talk page , or create a new article , as appropriate. July Learn how and when to remove this template message.
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